Helping You Find Full Text Journal Articles

Search Results:

Author: William C Mobley (68)


Jan
2018

Neurotrophic factors, including the members of the neurotrophin family, play important roles in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. Trophic factor signals must be transmitted over long distances from axons and dendrites to the cell bodies of neurons. A mode of signaling well suited to the challenge of robust long distance signaling is the signaling endosome.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Adults with Down syndrome (DS) represent an enriched population for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which could aid the study of therapeutic interventions, and in turn, could benefit from discoveries made in other AD populations.
1) Understand the relationship between tau pathology and age, amyloid deposition, neurodegeneration (MRI and FDG PET), and cognitive and functional performance; 2) detect and differentiate AD-specific changes from DS-specific brain changes in longitudinal MRI.
Twelve non-demented adults, ages 30 to 60, with DS were enrolled in the Down Syndrome Biomarker Initiative (DSBI), a 3-year, observational, cohort study to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting AD intervention/prevention trials in adults with DS.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2016

Down Syndrome (DS) adults experience accumulation of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like amyloid plaques and tangles and a high incidence of dementia and could provide an enriched population to study AD-targeted treatments. However, to evaluate effects of therapeutic intervention, it is necessary to dissociate the contributions of DS and AD from overall phenotype. Imaging biomarkers offer the potential to characterize and stratify patients who will worsen clinically but have yielded mixed findings in DS subjects.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2017

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized neuropathologically by an abundance of 1) neuritic plaques, which are primarily composed of a fibrillar 42-amino-acid amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), as well as 2) neurofibrillary tangles composed of aggregates of hyperphosporylated tau. Elevations in the concentrations of the Aβ42 peptide in the brain, as a result of either increased production or decreased clearance, are postulated to initiate and drive the AD pathologic process. We initially introduced a novel class of bridged aromatics referred tγ-secretase modulatoro as γ-secretase modulators that inhibited the production of the Aβ42 peptide and to a lesser degree the Aβ40 peptide while concomitantly increasing the production of the carboxyl-truncated Aβ38 and Aβ37 peptides.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2017

Down syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is caused by increased dose of genes present on human chromosome 21 (HSA21). The gene-dose hypothesis argues that a change in the dose of individual genes or regulatory sequences on HSA21 is necessary for creating DS-related phenotypes, including cognitive impairment. We focused on a possible role for Kcnj6, the gene encoding Kir3.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2016

Down syndrome (DS), caused by human trisomy 21 (Ts21), can be considered as a prototypical model for understanding the effects of chromosomal aneuploidies in other diseases. Human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) is syntenically conserved with three regions in the mouse genome.
A review of recent advances in genetic modeling and analysis of DS.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2016

It has been suggested that increased GABAergic innervation in the hippocampus plays a significant role in cognitive dysfunction in Down syndrome (DS). Bolstering this notion, are studies linking hyper-innervation of the dentate gyrus (DG) by GABAergic terminals to failure in LTP induction in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Here, we used extensive morphometrical methods to assess the status of GABAergic interneurons in the DG of young and old Ts65Dn mice and their 2N controls.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Corticostriatal atrophy is a cardinal manifestation of Huntington's disease (HD). However, the mechanism(s) by which mutant huntingtin (mHTT) protein contributes to the degeneration of the corticostriatal circuit is not well understood. We recreated the corticostriatal circuit in microfluidic chambers, pairing cortical and striatal neurons from the BACHD model of HD and its WT control.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2016

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance and hypoinsulinemia due to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Reduced mitochondrial function is thought to be central to β-cell dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced insulin secretion are also observed in β-cells of humans with the most common human genetic disorder, Down syndrome (DS, Trisomy 21).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2016

The endosome/lysosome pathway is disrupted early in the course of both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS); however, it is not clear how dysfunction in this pathway influences the development of these diseases. Herein, we explored the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which endosomal dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of AD and DS. We determined that full-length amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its β-C-terminal fragment (β-CTF) act though increased activation of Rab5 to cause enlargement of early endosomes and to disrupt retrograde axonal trafficking of nerve growth factor (NGF) signals.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

In Down syndrome (DS) or trisomy of chromosome 21, the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is present in excess. Evidence points to increased APP gene dose and Aβ as playing a critical role in cognitive difficulties experienced by people with DS. Particularly, Aβ is linked to the late-life emergence of dementia as associated with neuropathological markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Recently, in studies examining fibroblasts obtained from the tissues of one set of monozygotic twins (i.e. fetuses derived from the same egg) discordant for trisomy 21 (Down syndrome; DS), Letourneau et al.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

To gain further knowledge on the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we sought to characterize cognitive performance, neuroimaging and plasma-based AD biomarkers in a cohort of non-demented adults with down syndrome (DS). The goal of the down syndrome biomarker Initiative (DSBI) pilot is to test feasibility of this approach for future multicenter studies. We enrolled 12 non-demented participants with DS between the ages of 30-60 years old.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2015

Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy 21, is the most common chromosomal disorder associated with developmental cognitive deficits. Despite intensive efforts, the genetic mechanisms underlying developmental cognitive deficits remain poorly understood, and no treatment has been proven effective. The previous mouse-based experiments suggest that the so-called Down syndrome critical region of human chromosome 21 is an important region for this phenotype, which is demarcated by Setd4/Cbr1 and Fam3b/Mx2.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2015

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a movement disorder characterized by tau neuropathology where the underlying mechanism is unknown. An SNP (rs1768208 C/T) has been identified as a strong risk factor for PSP. Here, we identified a much higher T-allele occurrence and increased levels of the pro-apoptotic protein appoptosin in PSP patients.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Down syndrome (DS), trisomy for chromosome 21, is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. The genomic regions on human chromosome 21 (HSA21) are syntenically conserved with regions on mouse chromosomes 10, 16, and 17 (Mmu10, Mmu16, and Mmu17). Recently, we created a genetic model of DS which carries engineered duplications of all three mouse syntenic regions homologous to HSA21.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2015

Axonal injury and stress have long been thought to play a pathogenic role in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. However, a model for studying single-cell axonal injury in mammalian cells and the processes of repair has not been established. The purpose of this study was to examine the response of neuronal growth cones to laser-induced axonal damage in cultures of embryonic rat hippocampal neurons and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived human neurons.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Clues to Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis come from a variety of different sources including studies of clinical and neuropathological features, biomarkers, genomics and animal and cellular models. An important role for amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its processing has emerged and considerable interest has been directed at the hypothesis that Aβ peptides induce changes central to pathogenesis. Accordingly, molecules that reduce the levels of Aβ peptides have been discovered such as γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) and modulators (GSMs).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2014

BDNF plays an important role in several facets of neuronal survival, differentiation, and function. Structural and functional deficits in axons are increasingly viewed as an early feature of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Huntington's disease (HD). As yet unclear is the mechanism(s) by which axonal injury is induced.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2014

Neurites, both dendrites and axons, are neuronal cellular processes that enable the conduction of electrical impulses between neurons. Defining the structure of neurites is critical to understanding how these processes move materials and signals that support synaptic communication. Electron microscopy (EM) has been traditionally used to assess the ultrastructural features within neurites; however, the exposure to organic solvent during dehydration and resin embedding can distort structures.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2014

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized pathologically by an abundance of extracellular neuritic plaques composed primarily of the 42-amino acid amyloid β peptide variant (Aβ42). In the majority of familial AD (FAD) cases, e.g.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2014

Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome, DS) is the most common genetic cause of developmental cognitive deficits, and the so-called Down syndrome critical region (DSCR) has been proposed as a major determinant of this phenotype. The regions on human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) are syntenically conserved on mouse chromosome 10 (Mmu10), Mmu16 and Mmu17. DSCR is conserved between the Cbr1 and Fam3b genes on Mmu16.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Down syndrome (DS) is one of many causes of intellectual disability (ID), others including but not limited to, fetal alcohol syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, Williams syndrome, hypoxia, and infection. Down syndrome is characterized by a number of neurobiological problems resulting in learning and memory deficits and early onset Alzheimer's disease. The cognitive impairment in people with DS is virtually universal but varies considerably with respect to expressivity and severity.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2013

Majucin-type sesquiterpenes from Illicium sp., such as jiadifenolide (2), jiadifenin (3), and (1R,10S)-2-oxo-3,4-dehydroxyneomajucin (4, ODNM), possess a complex caged chemical architecture and remarkable neurotrophic activities. As such, they represent attractive small-molecule leads against various neurodegenerative diseases.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2013

Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27), a brain-enriched PDZ domain protein, regulates endocytic sorting and trafficking. Here we show that Snx27(-/-) mice have severe neuronal deficits in the hippocampus and cortex. Although Snx27(+/-) mice have grossly normal neuroanatomy, we found defects in synaptic function, learning and memory and a reduction in the amounts of ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDA and AMPA receptors) in these mice.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Recent studies in Huntington's disease (HD) mouse models and patients suggest that hippocampal neurons and their cholinergic afferents are involved in the cognitive deficits seen in the disease. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an essential regulator of cholinergic neuronal survival and neurotransmission.
We asked whether NGF might be involved in HD and if intra-cerebroventricular infusion of NGF can rescue hippocampal cholinergic neuronal markers, restore neurogenesis, and improve the spatial working memory in R6/1 mouse model of HD.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2012

Although significant progress has occurred in the past 20 years regarding our understanding of Alzheimer disease pathogenesis, we have yet to identify disease-modifying therapeutics capable of substantially altering the clinical course of this prevalent neurodegenerative disease. In this short review, we discuss 2 approaches that are currently being tested clinically (γ-secretase inhibition and γ-secretase modulation) and emphasize the significant differences between these 2 therapeutic approaches. We also discuss certain genetic- and biomarker-based translational and clinical trial paradigms that may assist in developing a useful therapeutic agent.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2012

Cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by deficient learning and memory. Mouse genetic models of DS exhibit impaired cognition in hippocampally mediated behavioral tasks and reduced synaptic plasticity of hippocampal pathways. Enhanced efficiency of GABAergic neurotransmission was implicated in those changes.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2012

Down syndrome (DS) is a multi-faceted condition resulting in the most common genetic form of intellectual disability. Mouse models of DS, especially the Ts65Dn model, have been pivotal in furthering our understanding of the genetic, molecular and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie learning and memory impairments in DS. Cognitive and pharmacological insights from the Ts65Dn mouse model have led to remarkable translational progress in the development of therapeutic targets and in the emergence of DS clinical trials.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2012

Human trisomy 21 is the most frequent live-born human aneuploidy and causes a constellation of disease phenotypes classified as Down syndrome, which include heart defects, myeloproliferative disorder, cognitive disabilities and Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration. Because these phenotypes are associated with an extra copy of a human chromosome, the genetic analysis of Down syndrome has been a major challenge. To complement human genetic approaches, mouse models have been generated and analyzed based on evolutionary conservation between the human and mouse genomes.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2012

Cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS) involves the hippocampus. In the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS, deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning and synaptic plasticity were linked to enhanced inhibition. However, the mechanistic basis of changes in inhibitory efficiency remains largely unexplored, and efficiency of the GABAergic synaptic neurotransmission has not yet been investigated in direct electrophysiological experiments.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Down syndrome (DS) is mainly caused by the presence of an extra copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and is a leading genetic cause for developmental cognitive disabilities in humans. The mouse is a premier model organism for DS because the regions on Hsa21 are syntenically conserved with three regions in the mouse genome, which are located on mouse chromosome 10 (Mmu10), Mmu16 and Mmu17. With the advance of chromosomal manipulation technologies, new mouse mutants have been generated to mimic DS at both the genotypic and phenotypic levels.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2011

The first enantioselective synthesis of (-)-jiadifenin (1), a potent neurite outgrowth promoter isolated from the Illicium species, is described. The synthetic strategy builds upon bicyclic motif 6, which represents the AB ring of the natural product and proceeds in 19 steps and 1.1% overall yield.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2011

Down syndrome (DS) is the most prevalent form of mental retardation caused by genetic abnormalities in humans. This has been successfully modeled in mice to generate the Ts65Dn mouse, a genetic model of DS. This transgenic mouse model shares a number of physical and functional abnormalities with people with DS, including changes in the structure and function of neuronal circuits.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2011

In addition to progressive dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by increased incidence of seizure activity. Although originally discounted as a secondary process occurring as a result of neurodegeneration, more recent data suggest that alterations in excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) balance occur in AD and may be a primary mechanism contributing AD cognitive decline. In this study, we discuss relevant research and reports on the GABA(A) receptor in developmental disorders, such as Down syndrome, in healthy aging, and highlight documented aberrations in the GABAergic system in AD.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2010

As the genomic basis for Down syndrome (DS), human trisomy 21 is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability in children and young people. The genomic regions on human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) are syntenic to three regions in the mouse genome, located on mouse chromosome 10 (Mmu10), Mmu16, and Mmu17. Recently, we have developed three new mouse models using chromosome engineering carrying the genotypes of Dp(10)1Yey/+, Dp(16)1Yey/+, or Dp(17)1Yey/+, which harbor a duplication spanning the entire Hsa21 syntenic region on Mmu10, Mmu16, or Mmu17, respectively.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2010

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized pathologically by the abundance of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. We synthesized over 1200 novel gamma-secretase modulator (GSM) compounds that reduced Abeta(42) levels without inhibiting epsilon-site cleavage of APP and Notch, the generation of the APP and Notch intracellular domains, respectively. These compounds also reduced Abeta(40) levels while concomitantly elevating levels of Abeta(38) and Abeta(37).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2010

Copy-number variation in the human genome can be disease-causing or phenotypically neutral. This type of genetic rearrangement associated with human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) underlies partial Monosomy 21 and Trisomy 21. Mental retardation is a major clinical manifestation of partial Monosomy 21.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2009

Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder resulting from the presence of all or part of an extra Chromosome 21. It is a common birth defect, the most frequent and most recognizable form of mental retardation, appearing in about 1 of every 700 newborns. Although the syndrome had been described thousands of years before, it was named after John Langdon Down who reported its clinical description in 1866.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2009

Down syndrome (DS) can be modeled in mice segmentally trisomic for mouse chromosome 16. Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mouse models have been used to study DS neurobiological phenotypes including changes in cognitive ability, induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the fascia dentata (FD), the density and size of dendritic spines, and the structure of synapses. To explore the genetic basis for these phenotypes, we examined Ts1Rhr mice that are trisomic for a small subset of the genes triplicated in Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mice.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2009

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2. Girls with RTT show dramatic changes in brain function, but relatively few studies have explored the structure of neural circuits. Examining two mouse models of RTT (Mecp2B and Mecp2J), we previously documented changes in brain anatomy.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2009

Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the gene MECP2, encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Few studies have explored dendritic morphology phenotypes in mouse models of RTT and none have determined whether these phenotypes in affected females are cell autonomous or nonautonomous. Using confocal microscopy analysis we have examined the structure of dendrites and spines in the motor cortex of wild-type (WT) and Mecp2-mutant mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2009

Down syndrome (DS) is a neurological disorder causing impaired learning and memory. Partial trisomy 16 mice (Ts65Dn) are a genetic model for DS. Previously, we demonstrated widespread alterations of pre- and postsynaptic elements and physiological abnormalities in Ts65Dn mice.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2009

Neurons of both the central and the peripheral nervous system are critically dependent on neurotrophic signals for their survival and differentiation. The trophic signal is originated at the axonal terminals that innervate the target(s). It has been well established that the signal must be retrogradely transported back to the cell body to exert its trophic effect.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2008

Neurotrophins and their cognate receptors Trks are important regulators of neuronal survival and differentiation. Recent studies reveal that internalization and trafficking of Trks play a critical role in neurotrophin-mediated signaling. At present, little is known of the molecular events that mediate this process.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

This review examines the large body of toxicological and epidemiological information on human exposures to chlorpyrifos, with an emphasis on the controversial potential for chlorpyrifos to induce neurodevelopmental effects at low doses. The results of this review demonstrate that the use of urinary 3,5,6-trichlorpyridinol (TCPy), a metabolite of chlorpyrifos as a biomarker of nonoccupational exposure is problematic and may overestimate nonoccupational exposures to chlorpyrifos by 10-to 20-fold because of the widespread presence of both TCPy and chlorpyrifos-methyl in the food supply. Current "background" (nonoccupational) levels of exposure to chlorpyrifos are several orders of magnitude lower than those required to inhibit plasma cholinesterase activity, which is a more sensitive target than nervous system cholinesterase.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2008

Rett syndrome (RTT) is caused by mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2. While patients with RTT show widespread changes in brain function, relatively few studies document changes in brain structure and none examine in detail whether mutations causing more severe clinical phenotypes are linked to more marked changes in brain structure. To study the influence of MeCP2-deficiency on the morphology of brain areas and axonal bundles, we carried out an extensive morphometric study of two Mecp2-mutant mouse models (Mecp2B and Mecp2J) of RTT.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2008

Down syndrome is characterized by a host of behavioral abnormalities including sleep disturbances. Sleep and EEG was studied at the age of 3 months in two mouse models of the condition, Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje, carrying one extra copy of partially overlapping segments of the mmu chromosome 16 (equivalent to the human chromosome 21). We found that the Ts65Dn mice showed increased waking amounts at the expense of non-REM sleep, increased theta power during sleep and a delayed sleep rebound after sleep deprivation.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2008

Human adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 1 (APPL1) and adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 2 (APPL2) are homologous effectors of the small guanosine triphosphatase RAB5 that interact with a diverse set of receptors and signaling proteins and are proposed to function in endosome-mediated signaling. Herein, we investigated the membrane-targeting properties of the APPL1 and APPL2 Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR), pleckstrin homology (PH) and phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains. Coimmunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid studies demonstrated that full-length APPL proteins formed homooligomers and heterooligomers and that the APPL minimal BAR domains were necessary and sufficient for mediating APPL-APPL interactions.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Back to top