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Author: Yanchun Che (33)


Jan
2018

The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine has been widely used in children to prevent invasive Hib disease because of its strong immunogenicity and antibody response induction relative to the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antigen. The data from vaccine studies suggest that the conjugate vaccine contains carrier proteins that enhance and/or regulate the antigen's immunogenicity, but the mechanism of this enhancement remains unclear.
To explore the immunological role of the conjugate vaccine, we compared the immune responses and gene profiles of rhesus macaques after immunization with CPS, carrier protein tetanus toxoid (TT) or conjugate vaccine.

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May
2017

A Sabin strain-based inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (Sabin-IPV) is the rational option for completely eradicating poliovirus transmission. The neutralizing capacity of Sabin-IPV immune serum to different strains of poliovirus is a key indicator of the clinical protective efficacy of this vaccine.
Sera collected from 500 infants enrolled in a randomized, blinded, positive control, phase 2 clinical trial were randomly divided into 5 groups: Groups A, B, and C received high, medium, and low doses, respectively, of Sabin-IPV, while groups D and E received trivalent oral polio vaccine and Salk strain-based IPV, respectively, all on the same schedule.

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Dec
1969

The pathological manifestations of fatal cases of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) are characterized by inflammatory damage to the central nervous system (CNS). Here, the dynamic distribution of EV71 in the CNS and the subsequent pathological characteristics within different regions of neonatal rhesus macaque brain tissue were studied using a chimeric EV71 expressing green fluorescence protein. The results were compared with brain tissue obtained from the autopsies of deceased EV71-infected HFMD patients.

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Dec
1969

Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) causes human hand, foot and mouth disease, but its pathogenesis is unclear. In rhesus macaques, CV-A16 infection causes characteristic vesicles in the oral mucosa and limbs as well as viremia and positive viral loads in the tissues, suggesting that these animals reflect the pathologic process of the infection. An immunologic analysis indicated a defective immune response, which included undetectable neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ-specific memory T-cells in macaques infected with CV-A16.

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Dec
2016

 The development of a Sabin strain-based inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Sabin-IPV) is imperative to protecting against vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in developing countries.
 In this double-blinded, parallel-group, noninferiority trial, eligible infants aged 60-90 days were randomly assigned in a ratio of 1:1 to receive either 3 doses of Sabin-IPV or Salk strain-based IPV (Salk-IPV) at 30-day intervals and a booster at the age of 18 months. Immunogenicity and safety were assessed on the basis of a protocol.

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Dec
1969

UL7, a tegument protein of Herpes Simplex Virus type I (HSV-1), is highly conserved in viral infection and proliferation and has an unknown mechanism of action.
A HSV-1 UL7 mutant (UL7-MU) was constructed using the CRISPR-cas9 system. The replication rate and plaque morphology were used to analyze the biological characteristics of the wild-type (WT), UL7-MU and MU-complemented P1 viruses.

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Dec
1969

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is composed of complex structures primarily characterized by four elements: the nucleus, capsid, tegument and envelope. The tegument is an important viral component mainly distributed in the spaces between the capsid and the envelope. The development of viral genome editing technologies, such as the identification of temperature-sensitive mutations, homologous recombination, bacterial artificial chromosome, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system, has been shown to largely contribute to the rapid promotion of studies on the HSV-1 tegument protein.

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Dec
1969

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), with vesiculae on the hands, feet and mouth, is an infectious disease caused by many viral pathogens. However, the differences of immune response induced by these pathogens are unclear. We compared the clinical manifestations and the levels of immunologic indicators from 60 HFMD patients caused by different viral pathogens to analyze the differences in the immune response.

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Dec
1969

To investigate the biological characteristics of the two types of virion fractions of Coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16), which include the real virion fraction and pseudo-virion fraction in their structure, pathogenicity and immunogenicity.
We obtained the two CA16 virion fractions by density gradient centrifugation. The morphology of virion fractions was analyzed by electron microscopy, while the antigenic characteristics and immunogenicity of two virion fractions were determined by ELISA, SDS-PAGE, Western blot, qRT-PCR, and the mouse model of immune response.

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Nov
2015

During the development of enterovirus 71 (EV71) inactivated vaccine for preventing human hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) by EV71 infection, an effective animal model is presumed to be significant and necessary. Our previous study demonstrated that the vesicles in oral regions and limbs potentially associated with viremia, which are the typical manifestations of HFMD, and remarkable pathologic changes were identified in various tissues of neonatal rhesus macaque during EV71 infection. Although an immune response in terms of neutralizing antibody and T cell memory was observed in animals infected by the virus or stimulated by viral antigen, whether such a response could be considered as an indicator to justify the immune response in individuals vaccinated or infected in a pandemic needs to be investigated.

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Sep
2015

To investigate the long-term effects on immunity of an inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine and its protective efficacy.
A sub-cohort of 1,100 volunteers from Guangxi Province in China was eligible for enrolment and randomly administered either the EV71 vaccine or a placebo on days 0 and 28 in a phase III clinical trial and then observed for the following 2 years with approval by an independent ethics committee of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Serum samples from the 350 participants who provided a full series of blood samples (at all the sampling points) within the 2-year period were collected.

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Nov
2015

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is often identified as the primary pathogen that directly leads to severe cases of HFMD, whereas the association between other enteroviruses and EV71 infection remains largely unclear. Here we report a rare case of a 5-year-old boy co-infected with EV71 and vaccine-derived Poliovirus (VDPV) type II, which were identified based on PCR and sequence analysis results and clinical symptoms and were characterized on CT. We determined that the EV71 strain belongs to the C4 subtype, and the VDPV II strain was closely genetically related to the reference Sabin type II strain.

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Sep
2014

During HSV-1 infection, the viral UL31 protein forms a complex with the UL34 protein at the cellular nuclear membrane, where both proteins play important roles in the envelopment of viral nucleocapsids and their egress into the cytoplasm. To characterize the mechanism of HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress, we screened host proteins to identify proteins that interacted with UL31 via yeast two-hybrid analysis. Transmembrane protein 140 (TMEM140), was identified and confirmed to bind to and co-localize with UL31 during viral infection.

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Jul
2014

Hand, foot and mouth disease is usually caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16), which are members of the Picornaviridae family. In the present study, the characteristics of the immune response induced by an EV71 inactivated vaccine (made from human diploid cells) were explored in the presence of CA16 infection, based on the previously established neonatal rhesus monkey model. The typical clinical manifestations, including body temperature, viral viremia and virus shedding in the mouth, pharynx and feces, were characterized.

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Dec
1969

Mumps, a communicable, acute and previously well-controlled disease, has had recent and occasional resurgences in some areas.
A randomized, double-blind, controlled and multistep phase I study of an F-genotype attenuated mumps vaccine produced in human diploid cells was conducted. A total of 300 subjects were enrolled and divided into 4 age groups: 16-60 years, 5-16 years, 2-5 years and 8-24 months.

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Dec
1969

The coxsackie A16 virus (CA16), along with enterovirus 71 (EV71), is a primary pathogen that causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). To control HFMD, CA16, and EV71 vaccines are needed. In this study, an experimental inactivated CA16 vaccine was prepared using human diploid cells, and the vaccine's immunogenicity was analyzed in mice and rhesus monkeys.

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Feb
2014

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children and may be fatal. A vaccine against EV71 is needed.
We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial involving healthy children 6 to 71 months of age in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

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Feb
2014

The World Health Organization has recommended that a Sabin inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) should gradually and synchronously replace oral polio vaccines for routine immunizations because its benefits in eliminating vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis have been reported in different phases of clinical trials. It is also considered important to explore new tetravalent diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis-Sabin IPV (DTaP-sIPV) candidate vaccines for possible use in developing countries. In this study, the immunogenicity of a combined tetravalent DTaP-sIPV candidate vaccine was investigated in primates by evaluating the neutralizing antibody responses it induced.

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Dec
1969

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major pathogen responsible for fatal hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Our previous work reported on an EV71-infected rhesus monkey infant model that presented with histo-pathologic changes of the central nervous system (CNS) and lungs. This study is focused on the correlated modulation of gene expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from EV71-infected rhesus monkey infants.

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Dec
2013

Studies of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection have shown that many known and unknown cellular molecules involved in viral proliferation are up-regulated following HSV-1 infection. In this study, using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we found that the expression of the HSV-1 infection response repressive protein (HIRRP, GI 16552881) was up-regulated in human L02 cells infected with HSV-1. HIRRP, an unknown protein, was initially localized in the cytoplasm and then translocated into the nucleus of HSV-1-infected cells.

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Dec
1969

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), causes outbreaks among children in the Asia-Pacific region. A vaccine is urgently needed. Based on successful pre-clinical work, phase I and II clinical trials of an inactivated EV71 vaccine, which included the participants of 288 and 660 respectively, have been conducted.

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Oct
2012

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen that causes hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). Our previous studies have demonstrated that the complete process of pathogenesis, which may include tissue damage induced by host inflammatory responses and direct tissue damage caused by viral infection, can be observed in the central nervous system (CNS) of animals infected in the laboratory with EV71. Based on these observations, the neuropathogenesis and protein expression profiles in the thalamic tissues of EV71-infected animals were further analyzed in the present study.

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Oct
2012

Although clinical trials for the enterovirus type 71 (EV71) inactivated vaccine have been progressing, the potential mechanism of EV71 infection and its associated pathogenesis are not well-characterized in terms of comprehensive analysis of the induced immune response, which is generally recognized as an important indicator of the safety of vaccines. To investigate the Th1/Th2 response following viral challenge in neonatal rhesus monkeys immunized with different doses of EV71 inactivated vaccines, the variety of different Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the organs or tissues of the monkeys were identified. The results suggest that depending on the viral challenge, the Th1/Th2 reaction induced by different doses of EV71 inactivated vaccine varies.

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Oct
2011

The genetic characteristics of mumps virus (MuV) strains isolated from sporadic mumps cases between 2007 and 2009 in three provinces of south-west China were investigated. MuV detection was carried out by nested RT-PCR on 117 cases. The small hydrophobic gene of 33 isolated strains was identified, and sequence analysis revealed that all the isolates belonged to the lineage genotype F with slight nucleotide variation.

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Mar
2011

Data from limited autopsies of human patients demonstrate that pathological changes in EV71-infected fatal cases are principally characterized by clear inflammatory lesions in different parts of the CNS; nearly identical changes were found in murine, cynomolgus and rhesus monkey studies which provide evidence of using animal models to investigate the mechanisms of EV71 pathogenesis. Our work uses neonatal rhesus monkeys to investigate a possible model of EV71 pathogenesis and concludes that this model could be applied to provide objective indicators which include clinical manifestations, virus dynamic distribution and pathological changes for observation and evaluation in interpreting the complete process of EV71 infection. This induced systemic infection and other collected indicators in neonatal monkeys could be repeated; the transmission appears to involve infecting new monkeys by contact with feces of infected animals.

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Jul
2010

HSV-1 viral capsid maturation and egress from the nucleus constitutes a self-controlled process of interactions between host cytoplasmic membrane proteins and viral capsid proteins. In this study, a member of the tetraspanin superfamily, CTMP-7, was shown to physically interact with HSV-1 protein VP26, and the VP26-CTMP-7 complex was detected both in vivo and in vitro. The interaction of VP26 with CTMP-7 plays an essential role in normal HSV-1 replication.

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Nov
2008

The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) tegument proteins have important functions in the viral replication process. In order to investigate the role of the HSV-1 tegument protein VP22 in viral replication, its transcriptional regulation of viral promoters was investigated using the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assay. The results indicate that VP22 exerts a dose-dependent transcriptional inhibitory effect on the HSV-1 alpha4, TK, and gC gene promoters.

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Jun
2007

The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate-early (MIE) promoter has strong transcriptional promoting capability. Its cis-acting regulatory elements form a special structure in this region that is repeated multiple times; the biological significance of these elements and their different compositions in the transcriptional promoting process remain unclear. Our results demonstrate that the HSV-I MIE protein ICP22 can generate strong repression of many viral and cellular promoters and enhancers.

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Dec
1969

Studies about the proteins induced by interferon (IFN-)-alpha stimulation have provided some data on their mechanism of antiviral effect. These proteins were confirmed to contribute to antiviral functions. In this study, IFN-alpha stimulation of human fibroblasts was shown to induce the inhibition of S24 variant 2 (a structural component of the ribosomal small subunit) at the mRNA and protein levels, implying a possible antiviral mechanism for IFN-alpha in human fibroblasts.

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Oct
2005

The pathological mechanism of SARS-CoV infection was investigated. The gene for the SARS-CoV non-structural protein 10, which is located in the open reading frame of pp1a/pp1ab gene, was synthesized and used to screen for the specific cellular gene coding for the protein interacting with this nsp10 protein in a human embryo lung cDNA library using a yeast trap method. The results indicated that apart from the two subunits of cellular RNA polymerase complex, BTF3 and ATF5, this nsp10 protein was also able to interact specifically with the NADH 4L subunit and cytochrome oxidase II.

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Dec
1969

The investigation of antigenic epitopes in hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein suggests that a central sequence combined with multiple antigenic epitopes of HCV might be significant as a potential vaccine candidate. This artificial sequence of combined and modified multiple antigenic epitopic peptides (Hc-B2), containing three B and four T cell epitopes, was constructed and expressed in E. coli.

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Jul
2003

Neurturin (NTN), a potent neurotrophic factor acting specifically on dopaminergic neurons, is comprised of 102 amino acids as a mature protein. We artificially synthesized a gene for mature human NTN (hNTN) using codons preferred by the yeast Pichia pastoris. This synthesized gene, fused in frame with sequences encoding the alpha-factor signal peptide gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cloned into P.

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Mar
2002

The interaction between a virus and its specific receptor on the membrane of the host cell mimics the physiological combination of signal ligand and its receptor, and initiates the specific signal transduction from this activated receptor to induce a relative gene response. During the investigation of the interaction between Herpes simplex virus I (HSVI) and human fibroblast via the virus binding to its receptor complex on the cellular membrane, a new gene of cellular response against the specific stimulation of HSVI binding to fibroblasts was cloned from a cDNA library established from mRNA of an early gene response. This gene encoded a protein of 14.

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