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Author: Yen-Hung Chow (39)


Dec
1969

Developing lung cancer in mouse models that display similarities of both phenotype and genotype will undoubtedly provide further and better insights into lung tumor biology. Moreover, a high degree of pathophysiological similarity between lung tumors from mouse models and their human counterparts will make it possible to use these mouse models for preclinical tests. Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinomas (OPAs) present the same symptoms as adenocarcinomas in humans and are caused by a betaretrovirus.

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Mar
2017

Hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) are mainly caused by Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infections. Clinical trials in Asia conducted with formalin-inactivated EV-A71 vaccine candidates produced from serum-free Vero cell culture using either roller bottle or cell factory technology, are found to be safe and highly efficacious. To increase vaccine yields and reduce the production costs, the bioprocess improvement for EV-A71 vaccine manufacturing is currently being investigated.

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Dec
1969

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is responsible for epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children. To circumvent difficulties in obtaining clinical enterovirus isolates that might be contaminated with other viruses, a platform technology was developed to quickly generate vaccine virus strains based on the published enterovirus genomic sequences. A recombinant plasmid containing the full-length infectious cDNA clone of EV-A71 vaccine strain E59 was directly generated after transfecting the recombinant plasmid into Vero, RD or HEK293A cells, and phenotypic characteristics similar to the parental strain were observed.

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Dec
1969

We have developed an efficient cell culture process to scale up the production of a recombinant adenovirus that expresses the membrane-trunked fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; Ad-F0ΔTM). Adherent cells of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293-derived cell, 293A, which supports the production of E1/E3-deleted Ad-F0ΔTM when cultured in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS), were adapted to suspension growth under serum-free medium. In doing so, we studied the immunogenicity of Ad-F0ΔTMsus, which propagated in a bioreactor that was cultured with serum-free suspension of 293A, in comparison with Ad-F0ΔTMadh, which was produced from parental 293A cells that were adherently cultured in medium containing FBS.

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May
2016

Childhood exanthema caused by different serotypes of coxsackievirus (CV-A) and enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has become a serious global health problem; it is commonly known as hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Current EV-A71 vaccine clinical trials have demonstrated that human antibody responses generated by EV-A71 vaccinations do not cross-neutralize coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16). An effective multivalent HFMD vaccine is urgently needed.

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Dec
2015

The regulation of the immunopathology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by regulatory T-cells (CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+); Tregs) is not understood.
To deduce the same, Tregs were depleted in BALB/c mice by injecting anti-CD25 antibody followed by RSV infection (anti-CD25-RSV mice).
In this model, a decrease in anti-fusion (F) antibody and neutralizing activity, and an increase in anti-nucleocapsid (N) antibody in serum, were seen.

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Dec
1969

Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4) virus.

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Dec
1969

This study determined if dietary restriction (DR) protects against hypoxic-ischemia (HI) in the neonatal brain via insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)/Akt pathway-mediated downregulation of p53 in the neurovascular unit. On postnatal (P) day 7, HI was induced in rat pups grouped from P1 into normal litter size (NL, 12 pups/dam) and increased litter size (DR, 18 pups/dam). In vivo IRS-1 anti-sense oligonucleotide and IRS-1 overexpressed recombinant adenovirus were given, and neurovascular damage was assessed.

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Apr
2015

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses (CV) are the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). There is not currently a vaccine available against HFMD, even though a newly developed formalin-inactivated EV71 (FI-EV71) vaccine has been tested in clinical trial and has shown efficacy against EV71. We have designed and genetically engineered a recombinant adenovirus Ad-EVVLP with the EV71 P1 and 3CD genes inserted into the E1/E3-deleted adenoviral genome.

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Mar
2015

Review of enterovirus 71 vaccines.

Clin Infect Dis 2015 Mar 28;60(5):797-803. Epub 2014 Oct 28.
Pele Chong, Chia-Chyi Liu, Yen-Hung Chow, Ai-Hsiang Chou, Michel Klein
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses are the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks worldwide and have a significant socioeconomic impact, particularly in Asia. Formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 vaccines evaluated in human clinical trials in China, Taiwan, and Singapore were found to be safe and to elicit strong neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 currently circulating in Asia. The results from 3 different phase 3 clinical trials performed in young children (6-60 months) indicate that the efficacy of FI-EV71 vaccines is >90% against EV71-related HFMDs and >80% against EV71-associated serious diseases, but the vaccines did not protect against coxsackievirus A16 infections.

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Sep
2014

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a head and neck cancer prevalent throughout Southern China and Southeast Asia. Patient death following relapse after primary treatment remains all too common but the cause of NPC relapse is unclear. Clinical and epidemiological studies have revealed the high correlation among NPC development, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and host genomic instability.

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Oct
2014

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), an emerging neurotropic virus and coxsackieviruses (CV) are the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD). These viruses have become a serious public health threat in the Asia Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 (FI-EV71) vaccines have been developed, evaluated in human clinical trials and were found to elicit full protection against EV71.

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Dec
1969

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases in Asia during the past decades and no vaccine is available. A formalin-inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine (EV71vac) based on B4 subgenotype has previously been developed and found to elicit strong neutralizing antibody responses in mice and humans. In this study, we evaluated the long-term immunogenicity and safety of this EV71vac in a non-human primate model.

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Oct
2014

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes bronchiolitis in children followed by inflammation and asthma-like symptoms. The development of preventive therapy for this virus continues to pose a challenge. Fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs) exhibit anti-inflammatory function.

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Dec
1969

We assessed two strategies for preparing candidate vaccines against hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused mainly by infections of enterovirus (EV) 71 and coxsackievirus (CV) A16. We firstly design and optimize the potency of adjuvant combinations of emulsion-based delivery systems, using EV71 candidate vaccine as a model. We then perform immunogenicity studies in mice of EV71/CVA16 antigen combinations formulated with PELC/CpG.

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Dec
1969

Although several factors participating in enterovirus 71 (EV71) entry and replication had been reported, the precise mechanisms associated with these events are far from clear. In the present study, we showed that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a key element associated with EV71 entry and replication in a human rhabdomyosarcoma of RD cells. Inhibition of HSP90 by pretreating host cells with HSP90β siRNA or blocking HSP90 with a HSP90-specific antibody or geldanamycin (GA), a specific inhibitor of HSP90, as well as recombinant HSP90β resulted in inhibiting viral entry and subsequent viral replication.

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Dec
1969

Hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus 16 (CVA16) in children have now become a severe public health issue in the Asian-Pacific region. Recently we have successfully developed transgenic mice expressing human scavenger receptor class B member 2 (hSCARB2, a receptor of EV71 and CVA16) as an animal model for evaluating the pathogenesis of enterovirus infections. In this study, hSCARB2-transgenic mice were used to investigate the efficacy conferred by a previously described EV71 neutralizing antibody, N3.

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Aug
2013

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand, foot, and mouth disease and severe neurological disorders in children. Human scavenger receptor class B member 2 (hSCARB2) and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) are identified as receptors for EV71. The underling mechanism of PSGL-1-mediated EV71 entry remains unclear.

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Dec
1969

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus (CVA) are the most common causative factors for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and neurological disorders in children. Lack of a reliable animal model is an issue in investigating EV71-induced disease manifestation in humans, and the current clinical therapies are symptomatic. We generated a novel EV71-infectious model with hSCARB2-transgenic mice expressing the discovered receptor human SCARB2 (hSCARB2).

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Dec
1969

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth diseases (HFMDs), and EV71 is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia. Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are not available. The current results from mouse immunogenicity studies using in-house standardized RD cell virus neutralization assays indicate that (1) VP1 peptide (residues 211-225) formulated with Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low virus neutralizing antibody response (1/32 titer); (2) recombinant virus-like particles produced from baculovirus formulated with CFA/IFA could elicit good virus neutralization titer (1/160); (3) individual recombinant EV71 antigens (VP1, VP2, and VP3) formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited antibody response with 1/128 virus neutralization titer; and (4) the formalin-inactivated EV71 formulated in alum elicited antibodies that cross-neutralized different EV71 genotypes (1/640), but failed to neutralize CVA16.

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Dec
2012

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and with Coxsackie virus (CV) it is the other major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are urgently needed. From a scientific (the feasibility of bioprocess, immunological responses and potency in animal challenge model) and business development (cost of goods) points of view, we in this review address and discuss the pros and cons of different EV71 vaccine candidates that have been produced and evaluated in animal models.

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Dec
1969

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) in Asia and now is being recognized as an important neurotropic virus. Effective medications and prophylactic vaccine against EV71 infection are urgently needed. Based on the success of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, a prototype chemically inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate has been developed and currently in human phase 1 clinical trial.

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Dec
1969

Enterovirus (EV) 71 infection is known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and in severe cases, induces neurological disorders culminating in fatality. An outbreak of EV71 in South East Asia in 1997 affected over 120,000 people and caused neurological disorders in a few individuals. The control of EV71 infection through public health interventions remains minimal and treatments are only symptomatic.

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Dec
1969

Identification of HLA-restricted CD8+ T cell epitopes is important to study RSV-induced immunity and illness. We algorithmically analyzed the sequence of the fusion protein (F) of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and generated synthetic peptides that can potentially bind to HLA-A*0201. Four out of the twenty-five 9-mer peptides tested: peptides 3 (F33-41), 13 (F214-222), 14 (F273-281), and 23 (F559-567), were found to bind to HLA-A*0201 with moderate to high affinity and were capable of inducing IFN-γ and IL-2 secretion in lymphocytes from HLA-A*0201 transgenic (HLA-Tg) mice pre-immunized with RSV or recombinant adenovirus expressing RSV F.

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Sep
2011

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the etiologic agent causes outbreaks with significant mortality in young children in Asia and currently there is no vaccine available. In this study, we report a quantitative enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Q-ELISA) to determine the concentration of the EV71 VP2 antigen. EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced in the baculovirus expression system and used as the EV71 antigen reference standard.

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Jun
2011

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections in children manifest as exanthema and are most commonly known as hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Because it can cause severe neurological complications like poliomyelitis, EV71 has now emerged as an important neurotropic virus in Asia. EV71 virus has been shown to consist of 3 (A, B and C) genotypes and many subgenotypes.

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May
2011

A live enterovirus 71 (EV71) isolate designated, EV71/E59, with genotype B4 produced in Vero cells and purified over a sucrose gradient was used as the immunogen to generate EV71-specific murine monoclonal antibodies. Four hybridoma clones derived from the fusion of splenocytes of EV71/E59-preimmunized BALB/c (H-2(d)) mice and the NS-1 myeloma cells that exhibit stable growth were selected for detailed characterization. The proof that the hybridomas produced are indeed true independent clones was based on the obervations that they expressed different complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) in their κ light chain genes.

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May
2011

CD8(+) lymphocytosis is recognized as the primary immunopathological response generated in primary EBV infection that may manifest itself as a benign lymphoproliferative disorder, infectious mononucleosis (IM). While CD4(+)FOXP3(+) T-regulatory cells (Treg cells) are well accepted to inhibit T-cell responses, it is puzzling why massive expansion of CD8(+) lymphocytes still occurs despite CD4(+)FOXP3(+) Treg cells are localized in tonsils, which are the port of entry of the virus. Understanding the interplay between the virologic and immunologic events that take place in tonsils in primary EBV infection is necessary to comprehend why IM preferentially develops in adolescents and the dynamics of CD4(+) Treg cell change that may occur in virus/pathogen infection in a broader setting.

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Aug
2010

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is a type D retrovirus capable of transforming target cells in vitro and in vivo. The Envelope (Env) gene from JSRV and from related retroviruses can induce oncogenic transformation, although the detailed mechanism is yet to be clearly understood. Host cell factors are envisaged to play a critical determining role in the regulation of Env-mediated cell transformation.

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Oct
2009

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) that causes contagious ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) in sheep carries an oncogenic Envelope gene (Env), which is capable of transforming target cells in vitro and in vivo. We cloned full-length JSRV Env cDNA into an expression vector, SPC/SV40, where the transgene was driven by lung-specific surfactant protein C (SPC) promoter, to obtain SPC-JSRV Env construct. SPC-JSRV Env was microinjected into immunocompetent FVB/N mice embryos to generate Env transgenic mice.

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Sep
2009

Two recombinant adenoviruses designated rAd-F0DeltaTM and rAd-F0 carrying the transmembrane truncated and full length of the F gene of the RSV-B1 strain, respectively, were engineered. Comparative immunogenicity studies in BALB/c mice showed that each vector was capable of inducing RSV-B1-specific antibodies that cross-reacted with the RSV-long and RSV-A2 viruses. The anti-RSV-B1 antibodies were neutralizing, and exhibited strong cross-neutralizing activity against the RSV-long and RSV-A2 isolates as well.

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Dec
1969

Dendritic cells (DCs) and T regulatory (Treg) cells play a crucial role in maintaining the tolerance needed to prevent the onset of autoimmunity that leads to the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Various experimental studies have shown that human DC subsets are involved in the induction of anergy in T cells and in the differentiation of conventional CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes into the respective subtypes of Treg cells. Treg cells, in turn, have been shown to modulate the function of DCs to exhibit tolerogenic properties.

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Jul
2006

The envelope (Env) of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) functions as an oncoprotein. One of the mechanisms of JSRV-induced cell transformation that has been proposed for epithelial cells involves JSRV Env binding Hyaluronidase 2 (the JSRV receptor), thereby inducing its degradation and allowing the release and activation of RON tyrosine kinase which is normally suppressed by HYAL-2. In this study, we report that HYAL-2 and RON are not critical for the JSRV Env-induced transformation of the rat epithelial cell line IEC-18, while the cytoplasmic tail of the JSRV Env is critical to transform this cell line.

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Oct
2003

The ability to readily elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 remains elusive. We and others have hypothesized that interaction of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env, gp120-gp41) with its receptor molecules could enhance the exposure of conserved epitopes that may facilitate the elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies. The Env-CD4-coreceptor complexes mediate HIV-1 entry into cells and serve as a major target for inhibitors of this process.

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Jul
2003

Expression of the JSRV envelope (Env) is sufficient to transform immortalized rodent fibroblasts. A putative docking site for the PI3-K kinase (Y(590)-X-X-M(593)) in the cytoplasmic tail of the transmembrane domain of the JSRV Env is a major determinant of viral-induced cell transformation. Akt is constitutively phosphorylated in rodent fibroblasts transformed by the JSRV Env.

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Jun
2003

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the etiological agent of a contagious lung cancer of sheep known as ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). Expression of the JSRV envelope protein (Env) is sufficient to transform immortalized and primary fibroblasts, but the precise mechanisms of this process are not known. The cellular receptor for JSRV is hyaluronidase 2 (Hyal-2), the product of a putative tumor suppressor gene that in humans maps to a chromosomal region frequently deleted in the development of lung and breast cancers.

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Aug
2002

DNA immunizations with glycoprotein 120 (gp120) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) usually require boosting with protein or viral vaccines to achieve optimal efficacy. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that mice immunized with DNA encoding gp120 fused with proinflammatory chemoattractants of immature dendritic cells, such as beta-defensin 2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 (MCP-3/CCL7) or macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22), elicited anti-gp120 antibodies with high titers of virus-neutralizing activity. The immunogenicity was further augmented with the use of chemokine fusion constructs with gp140, gp120 linked to the extracellular domain of gp41 via a 14-amino acid spacer peptide sequence.

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May
2002

Infection of CD4- cells by HIV-1 is well documented, but the mechanism responsible remains a matter of discussion. Previously we modified an HIV-1 virus strain, NL4-3, by deleting the Env proteins (gp41 and gp120) and inserting the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), and found that the Env(-) virus infects several types of CD4- cells. Here, we have prepared Env(-) virus from both the CD4- cell line, 293T, and the CD4+ cell lines, CEM and SUPT1, and found that HIV-1 Env(-) virus from either cell type is infectious for both CD4+ and several CD4- cell lines.

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Jun
2002

The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) undergoes conformational changes while driving entry. We hypothesized that some of the intermediate Env conformations could be represented in tethered constructs where gp120 and the ectodomain of gp41 are joined by flexible linkers. Tethered Envs with long linkers (gp140-14 with 15 aa and gp140-24 with 26 aa) were stable and recognized by conformationally dependent anti-gp120 and anti-gp41 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs).

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