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Author: Yuen Shan Ho (27)


Apr
2018

Mitochondrial fragmentation due to fission/fusion imbalance has often been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in neurodegeneration. Conventionally, it is believed that once mitochondrial morphology shifts away from its physiological tubular form, mitochondria become defective and downstream apoptotic signaling pathways are triggered. However, our study shows that beta-amyloid (Aβ) induces morphological changes in mitochondria where they become granular-shaped and are distinct from fragmented mitochondria in terms of both morphology and functions.

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Nov
2016

Icariin, an ingredient in the medicinal herbMaxim (), has been considered as a potential therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hyperhomocysteinaemia is a risk factor for AD and other associated neurological diseases. In this study we aim to investigate whether icariin can reverse homocysteine (Hcy)-induced neurotoxicity in primary embryonic cultures of rat cortical neurons.

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Dec
1969

Several studies suggest a relationship between anesthesia-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. This study further characterized the effects of continuous propofol infusion on tau protein phosphorylation in rats, with or without temperature control. Propofol was administered intravenously to 8-10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and infused to the loss of the righting reflex for 2 h continuously.

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Nov
2015

Systemic inflammation induces neuroimmune activation, ultimately leading to sickness (e.g., fever, anorexia, motor impairments, exploratory deficits, and social withdrawal).

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Oct
2015

Systemic inflammation leads to a variety of physiological (e.g. fever) and behavioral (e.

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Mar
2015

Tau is a microtubule-binding protein facilitating the stability of the cytoskeleton. It is important for neurons as several neurodegenerative diseases involve hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau. It is known that mutated tau P301L results in aggregation of tau proteins, leading to neuronal loss in the brain.

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Dec
1969

Exposure to anesthetic agents has been linked to abnormal tau protein phosphorylation, an antecedent to the development of neurofibrillary tangles. This study evaluates the direct and indirect effects of dexmedetomidine. Primary culture of cortical neurons established from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat embryos were exposed to dexmedetomidine for 1 or 6 hours, and the degree of tau phosphorylation at the AT8, AT180, and S396 sites was assessed by western blot analysis.

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Dec
1969

Increasing lines of evidence support that testosterone may have neuroprotective effects. While observational studies reported an association between higher bioavailable testosterone or brain testosterone levels and reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is limited understanding of the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms. Previous studies demonstrated that testosterone could alleviate neurotoxicity induced by β-amyloid (Aβ), but these findings mainly focused on neuronal apoptosis.

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Sep
2014

Acupuncture has been reported to be beneficial in treating cognitive impairment in various pathological conditions. This review describes the effort to understand the signaling pathways that underlie the acupunctural therapeutic effect on cognitive function. We searched the literature in 12 electronic databases from their inception to November 2013, with full text available and language limited to English.

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Jan
2014

It is well established that cigarette smoking is hazardous to health and is a risk factor for many chronic diseases. However, its impact on the brain, whether it be from prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking, cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Parkinson's disease, is still not very clear. Neuroimaging and neuropathological investigations suggest that there are heterogeneous effects of cigarette smoking on the brain.

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Dec
2013

The relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression has been well established in terms of epidemiological and clinical observations. Depression has been considered to be both a symptom and risk factor of AD. Several genetic and neurobiological mechanisms have been described to underlie these two disorders.

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Jan
2013

Sickness refers to a set of coordinated physiological and behavioral changes in response to systemic inflammation. It is characterized by fever, malaise, social withdrawal, fatigue, and anorexia. While these responses collectively represent a protective mechanism against infection and injury, increasing lines of evidence indicate that over-exaggerated or persistent sickness can damage the brain, and could possibly raise the risk to developing delirium.

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Dec
1969

Cigarette smoking has been proposed as a major risk factor for aging-related pathological changes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, little is known for how smoking can predispose our brains to dementia or cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the cigarette smoke-induced pathological changes in brains.

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Dec
1969

Age-related neurodegeneration in the brain and retina is complicated. It comprises a series of events encompassing different modes of degeneration in neurons, as well as inflammation mediated by glial cells. Systemic inflammation and risk factors can contribute to disease progression.

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Dec
1969

Accumulation of unfolded proteins can disturb the functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to ER-stress or unfolded protein response (UPR). Recent data have shown that activation of UPR can be found in postmortem brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients; and biological markers for activation of UPR are abundant in neurons with diffuse phosphorylated tau. Although these observations suggest a linkage between ER-stress and tau pathology, little is known of their relationship.

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Apr
2011

Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are two major diseases associated with dementia, which is common among the elderly. While the etiology of dementia is multi-factorial and complex, neurodegeneration may be the major cause of these two diseases. Effective drugs for treating dementia are still to be discovered.

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Oct
2010

Perturbed neuronal calcium homeostasis is a prominent feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mitochondria accumulate calcium ions (Ca(2+)) for cellular bioenergetic metabolism and suppression of mitochondrial motility within the cell. Excessive Ca(2+) uptake into mitochondria often leads to mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and induction of apoptosis.

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Dec
1969

Previous clinical and epidemiological studies have suggested that elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels increased the risk of Alzheime's disease (AD). Although the underlying mechanisms of its toxicity are elusive, it has been shown that Hcy damages neurons by inducing apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, and tau hyperphosphorylation. Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) is a fruit that is known for its eye-protective and anti-aging properties in Asian countries.

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Jan
2010

Regular consumption of green tea benefits people in prevention from cardiovascular disorders, obesity as well as neurodegenerative diseases. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is regarded as the most biologically active catechin in green tea. However, the stability and bioavailability of EGCG are restricted.

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Oct
2009

It has long been known that the brain is an immunologically privileged site in normal conditions. Although the cascade of immune responses can occur as long as there is a neuronal injury or a potent immune stimulation, how the brain keeps glial cells in a quiescent state is still unclear. Increasing efforts have been made by several laboratories to elucidate how repression of immune responses is achieved in the neuronal environment.

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Jul
2010

Aging is a universal biological process that leads to progressive and deleterious changes in organisms. From ancient time, mankind has already interested in preventing and keeping ourselves young. Anti-aging study is certainly not a new research area.

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Dec
2009

Glutamate excitotoxicity is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Attenuation of glutamate toxicity is one of the therapeutic strategies for AD. Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) is a common ingredient in oriental cuisines.

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Oct
2008

Oxyresveratrol (OXY) is a polyhydroxylated stilbene existing in mulberry. Increasing lines of evidence have shown its neuroprotective effects against Alzheimer disease and stroke. However, little is known about its neuroprotective effect in Parkinson disease (PD).

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Aug
2007

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease. There are increasing lines of evidence showing that the molecular signaling pathways in aged cells are altered so that cells are susceptible to injury. We and other laboratories have demonstrated the significant involvement of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) in beta-amyloid (A beta) peptide neurotoxicity and in AD.

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Jul
2007

Lycium barbarum is an oriental medicinal herb that has long been used for its anti-aging and cell-protective properties. Previous studies have shown that aqueous extracts from L. barbarum exhibit neuroprotection via inhibiting pro-apoptotic signaling pathways.

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Jun
2006

Chinese medicinal herbs have been consumed for thousands of years for the purpose of healthy aging. Lycium barbarum is valued in Chinese culture for its benefits to anti-aging, vision, kidney and liver. Recent studies showed that extracts from L.

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