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Author: Yuliya Zaytseva (26)


Sep
2017

Cognitive dysfunction is a common characteristic across a number of psychiatric conditions. With growing technological advances, application based cognitive remediation (cognitive apps) is becoming steadily popular due to its accessibility, ease of use and minimal interference with the activities of daily life. However, despite a number of benefits that application based cognitive training possesses, it is not clear, whether the utilisation of these apps is a reliable approach that can be recommended in clinical psychiatric practice in order to restore cognition.

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Sep
2017

The research is based on comparative analysis of 'Hinting Task', 'Faux Pas', and 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' tests sensitivity in detection of Theory of Mind deficits. The study included 20 subjects with schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders with the first episode of psychosis. Every subject performed the three proposed tests.

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Jun
2017

Catatonic schizophrenia, a rare subtype in this disease group, is characterized by motor disturbances. The current study investigated the reactivity of electroencephalographic mu rhythm in a motion imagery task in two single cases of first-episode catatonic schizophrenia, assuming they would show less mu rhythm reduction compared to paranoid schizophrenic patients and healthy controls.

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Sep
2016

Single cases may lead to unexpected hypotheses in psychology. We retrospectively analyzed single case studies that suggested organizational principles along the early visual pathway, which have remained unanswered until now.
In spite of the inhomogeneity of sensitivity, paradoxically the visual field on the subjective level appears to be homogeneous; constancy of brightness of supra-threshold stimuli throughout the visual field is claimed to be responsible for homogeneity; specific summation properties of retinal ganglion cells are hypothesized to guarantee this effect.

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Dec
1969

The phenomenology of the clinical symptoms indicates that disturbance of the sense of self be a core marker of schizophrenia.
To compare neural activity related to the self/other-agency judgment in patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (FES, n = 35) and healthy controls (HC, n = 35).
A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using motor task with temporal distortion of the visual feedback was employed.

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Dec
2015

Synchronizing neural processes, mental activities, and social interactions is considered to be fundamental for the creation of temporal order on the personal and interpersonal level. Several different types of synchronization are distinguished, and for each of them examples are given: self-organized synchronizations on the neural level giving rise to pre-semantically defined time windows of some tens of milliseconds and of approximately 3 s; time windows that are created by synchronizing different neural representations, as for instance in aesthetic appreciations or moral judgments; and synchronization of biological rhythms with geophysical cycles, like the circadian clock with the 24-hr rhythm of day and night. For the latter type of synchronization, an experiment is described that shows the importance of social interactions for sharing or avoiding common time.

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Dec
2015

Does a religion shape belief-related decisions and influence neural processing? We investigated an eminent bishop of the Catholic Church in Germany by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess neural processing while he was responding to short sentences of the Christian Bible, the Islamic Quran, and the Daodejing ascribed to Laozi in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, continuous praying was further compared to the resting state activity. In contrast to explicit statements of agreeing or not agreeing to different statements from the Bible and the Quran, we found in Experiment 1 no difference in neural activation when the bishop was reading these statements from the two religions.

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Dec
2015

In the general concept of self-disturbances in schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, somatopsychic depersonalization (SPD) occupies a special place as it constitutes a syndrome that comprises feelings of detachment from one's own body and mental processes. However, apart from clinical descriptions, to date the pathophysiology of SPD is not fully understood due to the rareness of the syndrome and a lack of experimental studies. In a case study of one patient with schizotypal disorder, we applied a multimodal approach to understanding the SPD phenomena.

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Sep
2015

The recovery model of schizophrenia is central to the devlopment of community services for patients with schizophrenia. However often when applying the recovery model of psychosis, often formal identification of cognitive imparements is not carried out, nor are interventions to improve cognitive functioning offered in a targeted way. Here we discuss how these issues relate to each other and argue for the use of cognitive testing in order to elp recovery in schizophrenia.

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Sep
2015

It has been repeatedly shown that schizophrenia patients have immense alterations in goal-directed behaviour, social cognition, and social interactions, cognitive abilities that are presumably driven by the mirror neurons system (MNS). However, the neural bases of these deficits still remain unclear. Along with the task-related fMRI and EEG research tapping into the mirror neuron system, the characteristics of the resting state activity in the particular areas that encompass mirror neurons might be of interest as they obviously determine the baseline of the neuronal activity.

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Feb
2015

Contemporary psychiatry is becoming more biologically oriented in the attempt to elicit a biological rationale of mental diseases. Although mental disorders comprise mostly functional abnormalities, there is a substantial overlap between neurology and psychiatry in addressing cognitive disturbances. In schizophrenia, the presence of cognitive impairment prior to the onset of psychosis and early after its manifestation suggests that some neurocognitive abnormalities precede the onset of psychosis and may represent a trait marker.

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Dec
1969

This study capitalizes on individual episodic memories to investigate the question, how dif-ferent environments affect us on a neural level. Instead of using predefined environmental stimuli, this study relied on individual representations of beauty and pleasure. Drawing upon episodic memories we conducted two experiments.

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Nov
2015

To evaluate the spectral power of the cortical bands in patients with first episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder at rest and during the performance of a mental arithmetic task.
We analyzed EEG spectral power (SP) in the resting state and subsequently while counting down from 200 in steps of 7, in 32 first episode schizophrenia patients (SZ), 32 patients with first episode schizoaffective disorder (SA) and healthy controls (HC, n=40). Behavioral parameters such as accuracy and counting speed were also evaluated.

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Dec
1969

Musical training has been shown to have positive effects on several aspects of speech processing, however, the effects of musical training on the neural processing of speech prosody conveying distinct emotions are yet to be better understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether the neural responses to speech prosody conveying happiness, sadness, and fear differ between musicians and non-musicians. Differences in processing of emotional speech prosody between the two groups were only observed when sadness was expressed.

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Nov
2014

The 4th Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 5-9, 2014 and this year had as its emphasis, "Fostering Collaboration in Schizophrenia Research". Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session, summarized the important contributions of each session and then each report was integrated into a final summary of data discussed at the entire conference by topic. It is hoped that by combining data from different presentations, patterns of interest will emerge and thus lead to new progress for the future.

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Dec
2014

Patients with schizophrenia frequently exhibit motor deficits. However, to date, there are no studies comparing motor performance in first episode patients with schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD; e.g.

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Dec
1969

Vocal expression of emotions (EE) in retrieval of events from autobiographical memory was investigated in patients in early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Twenty-one AD patients and 19 controls were interviewed, and EE of the reported memories was rated by 8 independent evaluators. The AD group had lower EE of both recent and remote memory than controls, although EE in remote memories was better preserved in both groups.

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Jun
2014

Understanding the mechanisms involved in perception and conception of oneself is a fundamental psychological topic with high relevance for psychiatric and neurological issues, and it is one of the great challenges in neuroscientific research. The paradigmatic single-case study presented here aimed to investigate different components of self- and other-processes and to elucidate corresponding neurobiological underpinnings. An eminent professional opera singer with profound performance experience has undergone functional magnetic resonance imaging and was exposed to excerpts of Mozart arias, sung by herself or another singer.

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Apr
2014

Music is known to convey and evoke emotional states. Musical training has been argued to lead to changes in neural architecture and enhanced processing of emotions. It is not clear, however, whether musical training is also associated with changes in behavioral and neural responses to musically conveyed discrete emotions.

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Sep
2012

Recovery encompasses symptom remission and functional elements such as cognition, social functioning and quality of life. Personal recovery is also important in illness management to help the person stay on track with treatment and focus on activities unrelated to taking medication that maintain mental health. In the present study we aimed to identify neurocognitive functioning in two clinically stable groups of patients with personal recovery and non-recovered patients.

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Dec
2013

Several studies show an association between a long duration of untreated illness (DUI) and poor outcome in schizophrenic patients. DUI, in turn, may be influenced by different variables including specific illness-related factors as well as access to local psychiatric services.
The purposes of the present study were to detect differences in terms of DUI among schizophrenics coming from different geographic areas and to evaluate differences in DUI across diagnostic sub-types.

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Sep
2011

Cognitive deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia mostly grasping memory, psychomotor processing, attention, thinking, and executive functioning and is already present in the prodromal phase of the illness and is detected at the onset. Recent studies have been focused on the differentiation of cognitive functioning in relation to the diagnostic categories, which reveal cognitive heterogeneity in schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The study demonstrated that along with changes in the clinical state, specifically, with reduction of psychopathological symptoms, patients with schizoaffective disorders show more positive dynamics with better chances to back up while in schizophrenia the cognitive dysfunction is more defined and less prone to improvement.

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Nov
2010

Cognitive deficit is present in most of schizophrenia cases and even better explains functional outcomes then positive and negative symptoms. There have been less consensus regarding the long-term course of cognitive functioning after onset of the illness. In our study we used a neuropsychological test battery based on Luria`s systematic approach in testing of patients at their first episode of schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders and during 5-year follow-up.

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Nov
2010

The Early Intervention Centre (First episode clinic, FEC) that provides specific service programs to this particular target group of patients with early psychosis opened in November 2000 as a day clinic at the Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry. To date, FEC programs consistent with the developed model have been established in 30 regions across Russia. 5-year follow-up data are available for 114 patients who received such care in the FEC.

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