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Author: Yvonne Schmidt (34)


Apr
2017

According to legal requirements coercive treatment must be limited to acts necessary for the protection of patients and cannot be used for institutional interests. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis that opening psychiatric wards can reduce the number of aggressive assaults and of coercive treatment without increasing absconding rates.Numbers of absconding, coercive medication, fixation and special security actions were collected retrospectively and compared between phases of closed (N total = 409; N legally committed = 64) and 90 % of daytime opened (N total = 571; N legally committed = 99) doors in an acute psychiatric ward.

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Dec
1969

A Pd-catalyzed/N-heterocycle-directed C(sp(3) )-H olefination has been developed. The monoprotected amino acid ligand (MPAA) is found to significantly promote Pd-catalyzed C(sp(3) )-H olefination for the first time. Cu(OAc)2 instead of Ag(+) salts are used as the terminal oxidant.

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Jan
2016

Methods for the practical, intermolecular functionalization of aliphatic C-H bonds remain a paramount goal of organic synthesis. Free radical alkane chlorination is an important industrial process for the production of small molecule chloroalkanes from simple hydrocarbons, yet applications to fine chemical synthesis are rare. Herein, we report a site-selective chlorination of aliphatic C-H bonds using readily available N-chloroamides and apply this transformation to a synthesis of chlorolissoclimide, a potently cytotoxic labdane diterpenoid.

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Aug
2015

The sophisticated organization of eusocial insect societies is largely based on the regulation of complex behaviors by hydrocarbon pheromones present on the cuticle. We used electrophysiology to investigate the detection of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) by female-specific olfactory sensilla basiconica on the antenna of Camponotus floridanus ants through the utilization of one of the largest family of odorant receptors characterized so far in insects. These sensilla, each of which contains multiple olfactory receptor neurons, are differentially sensitive to CHCs and allow them to be classified into three broad groups that collectively detect every hydrocarbon tested, including queen and worker-enriched CHCs.

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Dec
1969

The plant microbiome represents an enormous untapped resource for discovering novel genes and bioactive compounds. Previously, we isolated Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52 from the rhizosphere of sugar beet plants grown in a soil suppressive to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and showed that its antifungal activity is, in part, attributed to the production of the chlorinated 9-amino-acid lipopeptide thanamycin (Mendes et al.

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May
2015

The inflammatory sequelae of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) are a major causal factor of tissue injury in various clinical settings. MicroRNAs (miRs) are short, non-coding RNAs, which regulate protein expression. Here, we investigated the role of miR-155 in IR-related tissue injury.

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May
2015

A radical mediated C-H functionalization of 3,6-dichloropyridazine using primary alcohols, t-BuOOH, and TiCl3 to access alkoxy pyridazines is described. This transformation is conducted open to air and on gram scale. A subsequent cyclization step can then be employed to efficiently access diversely substituted tetrahydropyridopyridazines with multiple functional handles.

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Feb
2015

A sequential triple C-H activation reaction directed by a pyrazole and an amide group leads to the well-controlled construction of sterically congested dihydrobenzo[e]indazole derivatives. This cascade reaction demonstrates that the often problematic competing C-H activation pathways in the presence of multiple directing groups can be harvested by design to improve step economy in synthesis. Pyrazole as a relatively weak coordinating group is shown to direct Csp3-H activation for the first time.

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Mar
2015

Vascularization is essential in bone tissue engineering and recent research has focused on interactions between osteoblasts (hOBs) and endothelial cells (ECs). It was shown that cocultivation increases the stability of osteoblastic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA. We investigated the mechanisms behind this observation, focusing on mRNA binding proteins.

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Dec
1969

This chapter describes the methodology of the in vitro skin-saphenous nerve preparation and its application to test for the modulatory effects of opioids on the function of cutaneous sensory neurons in experimental models of pain. We detail the skin-nerve setup requirements and the technique to record action potentials from single sensory fibers. We address how to test for inhibitory effects of opioid receptor activation on mechanical and thermal sensitivity of nociceptors and mechanoreceptors in the complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation and the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain.

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Dec
1969

Immunohistochemical staining is widely used to identify opioid receptors in specific cell types or anatomical structures throughout the nervous system. Opioid receptors are not restricted to the central nervous system, but are also present in peripheral sensory neurons, where their activation exerts analgesic effects without inducing centrally mediated side effects. Here, we describe immunohistochemical analysis of opioid receptors in the peripheral sensory neuron cell bodies, along the axons and their peripheral endings in the hind paw skin, as well as in the spinal cord, under naïve and sciatic nerve damage conditions in mice.

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Jan
2015

Adequate vascularization is an essential requirement for bone development, fracture healing and bone tissue engineering. We have previously described the coculture of primary human osteoblasts (hOBs) and human endothelial cells (HUVECs), designed to investigate the interactions between these cells. In this system, we showed that cocultivation of these two cell types leads to a downregulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFR-α) in hOBs, which was a consequence of reduced mRNA stability.

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Jul
2014

The relevance of the dissociation of circulating pentameric C-reactive protein (pCRP) to its monomeric subunits (mCRP) is poorly understood. We investigated the role of conformational C-reactive protein changes in vivo.
We identified mCRP in inflamed human striated muscle, human atherosclerotic plaque, and infarcted myocardium (rat and human) and its colocalization with inflammatory cells, which suggests a general causal role of mCRP in inflammation.

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Jan
2014

Within the framework of our genome-based program to discover new antibiotic lipopeptides from Pseudomonads, brabantamides A-C were isolated from plant-associated Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52. Brabantamides A-C displayed moderate to high in vitro activities against Gram-positive bacterial pathogens.

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Dec
1969

Neuropathic pain is a debilitating chronic disease often resulting from damage to peripheral nerves. Activation of opioid receptors on peripheral sensory neurons can attenuate pain without central nervous system side effects. Here we aimed to analyze the distribution of neuronal μ-opioid receptors, the most relevant opioid receptors in the control of clinical pain, along the peripheral neuronal pathways in neuropathy.

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Sep
2013

Saccharothrix espanaensis is a member of the order Actinomycetales. The genome of the strain has been sequenced recently, revealing 106 glycosyltransferase genes. In this paper, we report the detection of a glycosyltransferase from Saccharothrix espanaensis which is able to rhamnosylate different phenolic compounds targeting different positions of the molecules.

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May
2013

The unusual intramolecular arene/allene cycloaddition described 30 years ago by Himbert permits rapid access to strained polycyclic compounds that offer great potential for the synthesis of complex scaffolds. To more fully understand the mechanism of this cycloaddition reaction, and to guide efforts to extend its scope to new substrates, quantum mechanical computational methods were employed in concert with laboratory experiments. These studies indicated that the cycloadditions likely proceed via concerted processes; a stepwise biradical mechanism was shown to be higher in energy in the cases studied.

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Nov
2012

Peripheral nerve injuries often trigger a hypersensitivity to tactile stimulation. Behavioural studies demonstrated efficient and side effect-free analgesia mediated by opioid receptors on peripheral sensory neurons. However, mechanistic approaches addressing such opioid properties in painful neuropathies are lacking.

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Nov
2012

The intramolecular arene/allene cycloaddition first described 30 years ago by Himbert and Henn permits rapid access to strained polycyclic compounds. Alkene metathesis processes cleanly rearrange appropriately substituted cycloadducts into complex, functional-group-rich polycyclic lactams of potential utility for natural product synthesis and medicinal chemistry.

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Jun
2012

The determination of the relative configuration of 1,3-dimethyl-substituted alkyl chains is possible by interpretation of (1)H NMR shift differences. Additionally, assignments are feasible in a variety of deuterated solvents, because the corresponding shift differences are not significantly influenced by the solvent. The trends for Δδ values depending on functional groups adjacent to the stereogenic centers are shown.

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Jun
2012

Empedopeptin is a natural lipodepsipeptide antibiotic with potent antibacterial activity against multiresistant Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro and in animal models of bacterial infection. Here, we describe its so far elusive mechanism of antibacterial action. Empedopeptin selectively interferes with late stages of cell wall biosynthesis in intact bacterial cells as demonstrated by inhibition of N-acetylglucosamine incorporation into polymeric cell wall and the accumulation of the ultimate soluble peptidoglycan precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid-pentapeptide in the cytoplasm.

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Oct
2011

Stereoselective and diversity-oriented synthesis of trisubstituted olefins was achieved by using ortho-diphenylphosphanyl benzoate (o-DPPB) as a directing group for allylic substitution. The starting point of this methodology was a set of α-methylene aldehydes derived from Baylis-Hillman adducts. Subsequent addition of different organometallic reagents led to a variety of allylic alcohol substrates.

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Oct
2011

New methodology for the stereoselective synthesis of trisubstituted olefins is presented. The use of ortho-diphenylphosphanyl benzoate (o-DPPB) as a directing leaving group for copper-mediated allylic substitution with Grignard reagents allowed for the stereoselective construction of a wide range of E olefins, without the need for an adjacent electron-withdrawing group. Our modular three-step approach toward trisubstituted alkenes commenced with geminal α-methylene aldehydes.

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Mar
2012

Lipopeptides (LPs) are a structurally diverse class of amphipathic natural products that were in the past mainly known for their surfactant properties. However, the recent discovery of their antimicrobial and cytotoxic bioactivities have fueled and renewed the interest in this compound class. Propelled by the antimicrobial potential of this compound class, in this study a range of six underinvestigated LPs from Pseudomonads were examined with respect to their antibiotic activities towards bacteria.

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Feb
2012

Our current knowledge of the pathophysiological sequelae of ischemia or reperfusion (I/R) injury in free tissue transfer in reconstructive surgery is based on data obtained in animal experiments. In this study, we investigated the histologic and molecular changes after 11 free microsurgical muscle transfers in human muscle tissue.
Biopsies of free muscle flap tissue were taken immediately before clipping of the pedicle and 5 days after ischemia and successful microanastomosis and restoration of the blood flow.

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Nov
2010

Introduction of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) system into clinical practice has revolutionized wound care. Despite its multiple advantages, however, the VAC is only rarely used in the setting of microsurgical reconstruction. Concerns have been the inability to clinically monitor the flap as well the possibility of flap compression by the device.

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Jul
2010

The striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum, is a cause of major damage to cucurbit crops in North America. To develop an environmentally benign plant protection strategy, recent research has focused on identifying sex pheromones of the cucumber beetle. In this context, we developed the asymmetric total synthesis of the aggregation pheromone of A.

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Oct
2010

Neuropathic pain is a debilitating consequence of nerve injuries and is frequently resistant to classical therapies. T lymphocytes mediate adaptive immune responses and have been suggested to generate neuropathic pain. In contrast, in this study we investigated T cells as a source of opioidergic analgesic β-endorphin for the control of augmented tactile sensitivity following neuropathy.

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May
2010

On the basis of the assignment of methylene proton signals in (1)H NMR and determination of the chemical shift difference (Deltadelta), the relative configuration of 1,3,n-methyl-branched deoxypropionates can be determined directly. Comparison of the chemical shifts in the corresponding syn- and anti-configured compound pairs shows remarkable differences, while the absolute values depend on the presence and nature of adjacent functional groups. The determination of the Deltadelta values provides a reliable assessment of the relative configuration in 1,3,n-methyl-branched polypropionate chains and is even valid for macrocycles.

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Nov
2009

The first asymmetric total synthesis of vittatalactone features the divergent synthesis of two diastereomers to assign the absolute configuration of the natural product. Its consecutive propionate and deoxypropionate stereogenic centers are established by enantioselective o-DPPB directed allylic substitution.

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Nov
2009

BTEX compounds such as benzene are frequent soil and groundwater contaminants that are easily biodegraded under oxic conditions by bacteria. In contrast, benzene is rather recalcitrant under anaerobic conditions. The analysis of anoxic degradation is often hampered by difficult sampling conditions, limited amounts of biomass and interference of matrix compounds with proteomic approaches.

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Feb
2009

The analgesic effects of leukocyte-derived opioids have been exclusively demonstrated for somatic inflammatory pain, for example, the pain associated with surgery and arthritis. Neuropathic pain results from injury to nerves, is often resistant to current treatments, and can seriously impair a patient's quality of life. Although it has been recognized that neuronal damage can involve inflammation, it is generally assumed that immune cells act predominately as generators of neuropathic pain.

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